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潜航器风波打破中美海军关系改善势头•中国将交还美国无人潜航器

王府英语 2018-06-19 10:45:09

(1)

潜航器风波打破中美海军关系改善势头

China-US drone dispute bucks trend of improved naval ties

China’s seizure of a US navy submarine drone signals its willingness to push back harder against American surveillance in the South China Sea, as tensions mount between the two nations ahead of the presidential inauguration of Donald Trump.

中国扣押美国海军无人潜航器这件事表明,北京方面有意以更强硬的方式回击美国在南中国海的监测活动。在唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)即将迎来总统就职典礼之际,中美两国间的紧张气氛正在升温。

The Pentagon said China had agreed to return the surveillance device, which was seized in international waters on Thursday. But the incident highlights concern about the direction of US-China ties amid uncertainty about the stance Mr Trump will adopt.

五角大楼(Pentagon)表示,中国已同意归还上周四其在国际水域捕获的监测设备。但这起事件凸显了,在不确定特朗普将采取何种立场的氛围中,美中关系发展方向令人担忧。

Mr Trump has been critical about China since launching his campaign, on everything from trade policy to its assertive moves in the South China Sea. After his victory, however, he sparked alarm in Beijing and among many experts in Washington by speaking to the Taiwanese president and hinting that he might abandon the“One China” policy that has guided US policy on China and Taiwan for four decades.

自参加大选以来,特朗普一直对中国批评有加——从贸易政策到中国在南中国海的强硬行动。而胜选后,他与台湾总统通电话并暗示可能放弃40年来一直指引美国台海政策的“一个中国”政策,这引发了北京方面以及华盛顿许多专家的警惕。

The president-elect cricised China over the drone incident, which he said was“unprecedented" before saying that the US should allow  China  to keep the device. “We should tell China that we don’t want the drone they stole back — let them keep it!” he tweeted.

这位美国当选总统就此次无人潜航器被扣事件批评中国称,该事件“史无前例”,随后又表示,美国应让中国留着这个设备。他在Twitter上写道:“我们应该告诉中国,我们不想要回他们偷走的无人潜航器。让他们留着吧!”

While US-Sino relations usually enter a period of uncertainly at a time of administration change in Washington, analysts said that the apprehension surrounding the drone in disputed waters bucks the recent trend of improving ties between the US and Chinese navies. 

虽然美中关系在美国政府换届之际通常都会进入一段不确定期,但分析人士表示,此次争议水域潜航器事件引发的担忧,与近年来两国海军关系不断改善的势头背道而驰。

“This goes against the grain of the professionalisation of [China’s] People’s Liberation Army Navy over the past few years, as it seemed to be embracing confidence-building measures with the US,”said Euan Graham, a security analyst at the Lowy Institute, a think-tank in Sydney. “This is a significant escalation with a navy ship interfering with another navy ship at close quarters.”

“这与(中国)人民解放军海军近些年的专业化相悖,因为中国海军似乎正在接受与美国建立信任的措施,”悉尼智库洛伊研究所(Lowy Institute)安全问题分析家尤安•格雷厄姆(Euan Graham)表示,“一艘海军舰艇近距离干扰另一艘海军舰艇作业,这是严重升级了。”

Ni Lexiong, a naval expert at the East China University, said the seizure was “a reminder to surrounding countries in the South China Sea area, as well as the US and Japan, to reconsider China’s stance on defending its territory”.

上海政法学院海军专家倪乐雄表示,此次扣押是提醒南中国海周边国家以及美国和日本,他们需要重新认识中国捍卫本国领土的立场。

The Pentagon said the drone, which was being operated by the USNS Bowditch, a civilian-operated navy survey vessel, was taken“unlawfully” by a Chinese naval ship on Thursday, 50 nautical miles from Subic Bay in the Philippines. Such drones are typically used to collect oceanographic data such as water depth and salinity.

五角大楼表示,这具由美国“鲍迪奇号”(Bowditch)海军测量船操控的无人潜航器,上周四在距离菲律宾苏比克湾(Subic Bay) 50海里的水域被一艘中国海军舰只“非法”捞起。“鲍迪奇号”由非军事人员操纵,而此类无人潜航器通常用于收集水深、盐度等海洋数据。

China’s defence ministry said that it had seized the drone “to prevent it endangering the navigation and crew” of the Chinese ship. But it also reiterated its opposition to US military reconnaissance operations in the waters around China.

中国国防部表示,捕获该无人潜航器是为了防止该装置对过往船舶的“航行安全和人员安全”产生危害。中国国防部还重申,反对美国在中国周边海域进行军事侦察活动。

Analysts said that while the information gleaned from underwater drones was not classified, it was vital to the operation of the submarines that both sides operate in the South China Sea.

分析人士表示无人潜航器收集的信息虽然并非机密资料,但对双方潜艇在南中国海的作业却至关重要。

Li Mingjiang, a China expert at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore, said Beijing was willing to risk an escalation with Washington over the latest incident because it was worried about US plans to expand the use of naval drones in the South China Sea.

新加坡拉惹勒南国际研究院(S. Rajaratnam School ofInternational Studies)中国问题专家李明江表示,北京之所以愿与华盛顿在这起最新事件中冒险升级态势,是因为它担心美国计划在南中国海增加部署海军潜航器。

“PLA leaders have good reason to worry about this emerging  US  naval strategy against China in East Asia,” he said. “If this strategy becomes reality, it could be quite detrimental to China’s national security.”

他说:“解放军高层有充分理由担心美国海军正在构建的在东亚与中国对抗的新战略。如果该战略成为现实,对中国的国家安全可能相当不利。”

Yue Gang, a retired PLA colonel, said that while the Bowditch might have been in international waters, it was “almost certain that the drone was conducting espionage activities” within the nine-dashed line, Beijing’s contested claim to much of the South China Sea.

解放军退役上校岳刚表示,虽然鲍迪奇号或许是在国际水域航行,“但几乎可以肯定该潜航器在九段线内进行间谍活动”。北京方面依据“九段线”主张拥有南中国海大部分海域,这一主张引起了争议。

He said that Beijing’s response was a “significant signal” of its displeasure with US policy, while also giving the navy time to analyse the drone to obtain“evidence of the espionage activities”.

岳刚表示北京的反应是对美国政策不满的一个“重要信号”,同时也让海军有时间分析这架潜航器,以获得“间谍活动的证据”。

Western analysts said that such a brazen act would undermine other nations’ confidence in China’s commitment to global norms.

西方分析人士表示,这种肆无忌惮的行为会破坏其他国家对中国遵守全球规范承诺的信心。

“It’s illegal and it fuels concerns about whether China is really willing to abide by the international right of freedom of navigation,” said Ian Storey, a senior fellow at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore.

新加坡东南亚研究所(ISEAS)高级研究员伊恩•斯托里(Ian Storey)表示:“这是个非法举动,它引起了人们的担忧,中国是否真的愿意遵守国际上的航行自由权?”

Security analysts also said that the seizure would prompt the US and others to rethink how they deploy civilian survey vessels and underwater drones.

安全分析师还表示,扣留潜航器事件将促使美国和其他国家重新思考如何部署民用勘探船和水下潜航器。

“There will have to be a reappraisal of how unarmed US vessels do business in the South China Sea,” said Mr Graham of the Lowy Institute.

洛伊研究所的格雷厄姆表示:“必须对美国非武装船只在南中国海的作业方式进行重新评估。

“They’re going to require an escort or armed personnel on board.”

“它们将需要护卫舰,或在船上配备武装人员。”

Heiko Borchert, a security consultant, said that China’s actions highlight the risks of deploying drones in a “non-benign naval environment”.

安全顾问海科•博彻特(Heiko Borchert)表示,中方此举突显出了在“非良性海军环境”部署潜航器的风险。

“The incident shows that the tactical and strategic benefits of unmanned underwater vehicles can quickly turn into a strategic liability if other actors are not willing to back down on their own policy line,” he wrote on the website of the Center for International Maritime Security, a US think-tank.

博彻特在美国智库国际海事安全中心(Center for International Maritime Security)的网站上写道:“这一事件表明,如果其他行事方不愿意在自己的政策路线上让步,水下无人装置的战术和战略利益可能很快就会变成战略负担。”

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美国称:中国将交还美国无人潜航器

US says China agrees to return seized submarine drone

China has agreed to return a US navy submarine drone seized by the Chinese navy in the South China Sea following a formal protest from Washington.

中国同意送回中国海军在南中国海捕获的一具美国海军无人水下潜航器,此前,华盛顿就这一事件提出了正式抗议。

“We have registered our objection to China’s unlawful seizure of a US unmanned underwater vehicle operating in international waters in the South China Sea,” said Peter Cook, Pentagon spokesman. “Through direct engagement with Chinese authorities, we have secured an understanding that the Chinese will return the UUV (drone) to the  US.”

我们已就中国非法捕获在南中国海国际海域作业的一具美国无人水下潜航器提出抗议,”五角大楼(Pentagon)发言人彼得•库克(Peter Cook)说,“通过与中国当局直接接触,我们得到保证,中方将把该无人水下潜航器(UUV)交还美方。”

The seizure of the drone by the Chinese navy marked a sharp escalation in already rising tensions between the two countries.

中国海军此次扣押美国无人水下潜航器,标志着两国本已不断升温的紧张局势急剧升级。

A US defence official said the device was grabbed as it was being operated by the USNS Bowditch, a survey vessel.

美国国防部一名官员称,该潜航器被中国捕获时,正由美国海军“鲍迪奇号”(Bowditch)海洋测量船操控。

The Obama administration issued a formal démarche after the incident, the most dramatic recent flashpoint between the US and China in the South China Sea, where disputes over islands and resources have become a geopolitical faultline and prompted persistent friction between the two countries’ navies.                   

事件发生后,奥巴马政府提出了正式交涉。这是中美两国近期在南中国海爆发的最具戏剧性的摩擦,围绕南中国海相关岛屿和资源的争端已变成一条地缘政治断层线,使两国海军之间不断出现摩擦。

President-elect Donald Trump on Saturday criticised the seizure of the drone. “China steals United States Navy research drone in international waters — rips it out of water and takes it to China in unpresidented act,” he wrote on Twitter.

上周六,美国当选总统唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)对中国扣留美国无人潜航器进行了批评。他在Twitter上写道:“中国在国际海域偷走美国海军研究无人潜航器——史无前例地从水里捞起,就这么把它带到了中国。”

After the Pentagon’s announcement, Mr Trump on Saturday evening weighed in again on the situation on Twitter: “We should tell  China that we don’t want the drone they stole back — let them keep it!”

五角大楼发表声明后,特朗普上周六晚在Twitter上再度发话:“我们应该告诉中国,我们不想要回他们偷走的无人潜航器。让他们留着吧!”

China’s defence ministry said on Saturday night that one of its navy vessels had picked up the drone “to prevent it endangering the ship’s navigation and crew”.

中国国防部上周六夜间表示,中国海军一艘救捞船在南海有关海域发现一具不明装置,为预防发生航行安全问题,对该装置进行了识别查证。

It said that it would hand it back to the US“in an appropriate manner” but it criticised the US response to the incident, which it said was “not conducive” to resolving the dispute smoothly.

中国国防部表示,将“通过适当方式”将该无人潜航器移交美方。但中方批评了美方对此事件的反应,称这样做“不利于”问题的顺利解决。

The defence ministry also reiterated its opposition to US military reconnaissance activities in what it called “China’s waters”.

中国国防部还重申,反对美国在中方所称的“中国海域”进行军事侦察活动。

It said simply that “China and the US are handling this incident properly through military channels on both sides”.

中国国防部表示,中美正在通过双方的军事渠道妥善处理这一事件。

The seizure came days after Mr Trump appeared to challenge Beijing by speaking on the phone with the president of Taiwan and suggesting that he would consider abandoning US policy over the island if  China  did not make concessions to the US over other issues, including the South China Sea.

此事件发生前,特朗普似乎一直在挑战北京:他与台湾总统通过电话,还暗示如果中国不在南中国海等问题上做出让步,他将考虑放弃美国对台湾的现行政策。

“This is the opening shot, the first part of the Chinese response to push back against Trump over Taiwan,” said Harry Kazianis, director of defence studies at the Center for the National Interest in Washington.

华盛顿国家利益中心(Center for the National Interest)防务研究负责人Harry Kazianis表示:“此举是第一枪,是中国反击特朗普对台政策的第一步。”

“It is likely that this was a very well choreographed decision from the top.”

这很可能是顶层的一个精心安排的决定。”

Under the “One China” policy, the US recognised Beijing as the legitimate government of China and cut formal diplomatic ties with  Taiwan. However, the US continues to sell arms to Taiwan to help it defend itself from a potential Chinese invasion.

根据“一个中国”政策,美国承认北京为中国的合法政府,并割断与台湾的正式外交关系。但美国继续向台湾出售武器,以帮助它抵御中国大陆的潜在入侵。

In an interview last weekend, Mr Trump said that he did not see why the US should be bound by the “One China” policy if the Chinese were not willing to enter into a bargain with Washington over issues such as trade.

在上周末的一次采访中,特朗普说,如果中国人不愿意与华盛顿就贸易等问题进行谈判,他不明白为什么美国还要受“一个中国”政策的约束。

Asked at a press conference on Friday about the wisdom of threatening to overturn US policy on Taiwan, Mr Obama said that “I think it’s fine for him to take a look at it” but that the president-elect should ensure he was briefed on the potential fallout so that any new approach was adopted “in a systematic, deliberate, intentional way”. The policy had helped keep the peace while allowing Taiwan to become “a pretty successful economy”.

在上周五的一个记者会上,在被问及威胁推翻美国对台政策的智慧时,奥巴马表示“我认为他能想到这个问题是不错的”,但当选总统应确保自己已被告知潜在冲击波,这样才能“系统化地、慎重地、有意地”采纳任何新方法。一个中国政策在帮助维持和平的同时,多年来也让台湾成为“一个相当成功的经济体”。

“The idea of One China is at the heart of their Beijing’s conception as a nation,” he said. “And so if you are going to upend this understanding, you have to have thought through what the consequences will be because the Chinese will not treat that the way they’ll treat some other issues.”

奥巴马说:“一个中国的想法是北京方面国家观念的核心。因此如果你要推翻这种认识,你必须考虑清楚后果,因为中国人不会用处理其他某些问题的方式来对待这一问题。”

US officials said that the Bowditch had been operating in international waters 50 nautical miles off the coast of the  Philippines  and was doing “normal” survey operations.

美国官员表示,“鲍迪奇号”一直在菲律宾海岸50海里以外的国际水域航行,而且当时正进行“正常”调查活动。

The drone, an“ocean glider” that is used to gather oceanographic data, had returned to the surface and was waiting to be retrieved by the Bowditch. At that time, a Chinese naval vessel launched a small boat that picked up the glider. A radio request to the Chinese to return the drone was ignored.

该无人机是一架“海洋滑翔机”,用于收集海洋数据,当时已返回海面,等待被“鲍迪奇号”收回。就在此时,中国一艘军舰放下一条小船,捡走了滑翔机。美军向中方发送无线电请求返还无人机,但中方未予理会。


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