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美国再次将中国告上WTO

王府英语 2018-06-13 13:51:49

美国再次将中国告上WTO

US launches WTO challenge to China’s grain import curbs

The Obama administration has added to the growing trade battles with  China  even before Donald Trump takes office, launching a World Trade Organisation challenge to Chinese restrictions on grain imports.

奥巴马政府在唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)甚至还未上任之前就扩大了美中之间愈演愈烈的贸易争执,在世界贸易组织(WTO)挑战中国对谷物进口的限制。

The latest US case is focused on China’s administration of import quotas for corn, rice and wheat, which Washington claims unfairly limit its exports to China. It is the 15th WTO action brought against Beijing by the Obama administration.

美国提起的最新申诉针对中国实行的玉米、大米和小麦进口配额制度;华盛顿方面称,该制度不公平地限制了美国对华出口。这是奥巴马政府在世贸组织对北京方面发起的第15起行动。

The case highlights how trade and other tensions between the US and China are escalating even as Mr Trump and his administration prepare to take over, having promised to take a hard line with Beijing on trade and other issues. It also points to broader fears about how the Republican president-elect will manage the world’s most important economic relationship.

本案突显了美国和中国之间的贸易和其他紧张不断升级,即便承诺在贸易和其他问题上对北京方面采取强硬立场的特朗普及其行政当局仍在准备接手。本案还折射了外界对于共和党当选总统将如何管理世界上最重要经贸关系的总体担心。

The move came just days after China took the US and EU to the WTO over their refusal to grant it “market economy” status within the trade body and amid other signs that China is already waging a tit-for-tat commercial war with the US. On Wednesday, shares in General Motors fell after Beijing announced that it was preparing to fine an unnamed US car maker operating in China for “monopolistic behaviour”.

美国采取这一行动的几天前,中国将美国和欧盟告上世贸组织,焦点是美欧拒绝在这个贸易组织内部授予中国“市场经济”地位,同时另有迹象显示,中国已经对美国发起一场针锋相对的商业战争。通用汽车(General Motors)股价周三下跌,此前北京方面宣布,正准备处罚一家未点名的在华经营美国汽车制造商的“垄断行为”。

Analysts see this week’s volleys as likely to be just the beginning of a downturn in relations, particularly if Mr Trump delivers on campaign promises to dub China a currency manipulator or to impose punitive tariffs on Chinese imports into the US. Since the election, Mr Trump has also angered Beijing by taking a congratulatory call from Taiwan’s president and declaring that he might revisit the US’s longstanding “One China” policy.

分析师们认为,本周的过招很可能只是关系恶化的开端,特别是如果特朗普兑现竞选承诺,把中国列为汇率操纵国或对中国输美产品开征惩罚性关税。自当选以来,特朗普还接听了台湾总统的道贺电话,并宣布他将重审美国长期以来的“一个中国”政策,由此激怒北京方面。

 “I think we were on track for a rockier relationship whoever won the US presidential election,” said Matthew Goodman, senior adviser for Asian economics at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. But Mr Trump’s persistent anti-China rhetoric and his testing of what had been the norms in the relationship boded badly, he said.

“我认为,无论谁赢得美国总统大选,我们都会迎来更加不稳定的关系,”华盛顿战略与国际问题研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)亚洲经济事务高级顾问马修·古德曼(Matthew Goodman)表示。但他说,特朗普一再的反中国言论和他对双边关系中的惯例的试探是不祥的预兆。

 “It is unusual and a little bewildering that we are already getting into this kind of turmoil even before inauguration day [January 20],” Mr Goodman said. “We all keep hoping that once he takes office things will settle back to normal. But there’s no evidence of that yet.”

“还没有到就职典礼日(1月20日),我们就已经陷入这种动荡,这是不寻常和有点令人困惑的,”古德曼说。“我们都希望,他入主白宫后,事情会恢复正常。但是迄今没有这方面的证据。”

Among the concerns for the relationship, Mr Goodman said, was a growing suspicion of rising Chinese investment in the US that echoed some of the domestic fears raised by 1980s Japanese investment. Chinese companies are expected to invest some $30bn in the US this year but at the same time are facing growing political scrutiny.

古德曼表示,在对美中关系的种种担忧中,包括美国有越来越多的人对中国在美投资不断增长产生疑虑,这类似于上世纪80年代日本在美投资引发的一些担忧。预计中国企业今年将在美国投资约300亿美元,但与此同时它们面临着越来越多的政治关注。

US businesses also complain of a more hostile environment in  China and that is undermining a key force in the relationship. “Unlike Japan in the 1980s when we had the security alliance to balance trade frictions, with China we don’t have that. We have the inverse [because of a security rivalry],” Mr Goodman said. “The business community has been the main ballast and if we lose that, it will have a major impact.”

美国企业还抱怨中国的营商环境变得更具敌意,这种情绪正在削弱双边关系中的一股关键力量。“对于上世纪80年代的日本,我们有安保同盟来平衡贸易摩擦,与此不同的是,美中之间没有那种同盟。我们有的只是反面(安全方面的角力),”古德曼说。“商界一直是主要的稳定力量,如果我们失去这股力量,那将产生重大影响。”

Any trade moves by Mr Trump could find broad political support in the US, although economists have warned of potentially dire consequences for the US economy. Yesterday’s launch of the latest WTO case was welcomed by both Republicans and Democrats, particularly from farm states. 

特朗普在贸易上对中国采取任何行动,都可能在美国得到广泛的政治支持,尽管经济学家们警告美国经济可能遭受可怕后果。昨日美国在世贸组织对中国发起最新诉讼的消息受到共和党和民主党的欢迎,特别是来自农场州的政治人士。

“Today's enforcement action on China’s administration of tariff-rate quotas for wheat, corn, and rice appears to be yet another example of China's refusal to play by the rules,” said Pat Roberts, the Republican chairman of the Senate agriculture committee.

“今日对中国小麦、玉米和大米关税配额制度采取的执法行动,似乎是中国拒绝遵守规则的又一个例子,”参议院农业委员会的共和党主席帕特?罗伯茨(Pat Roberts)表示。

“We need to hold China accountable for unfair trade practices that hurt American farmers,”said Senator Debbie Stabenow, top committee Democrat.

民主党在该委员会的头号人物、参议员德比·斯塔伯诺(Debbie Stabenow)说,“我们需要追究中国方面损害美国农民利益的不公平贸易行为的责任。”


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