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(上)Back in the booth 又是一年投票时

译者说 2020-10-27 12:15:59
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译文导读
说好了“人人生而平等”,却又用州法来限制少数族裔投票。不管你是有意还是无意,联邦法官们的眼睛都亮着呢。且看美国联邦法官们如何见招拆招,为少数族裔和弱势群体争得更加公平公正的投票权。


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双语精读
Voting restrictions
投票限制
Back in the booth
又是一年投票时

Translated by 周婧
Proofread by 陈铭, April
Reviewed by Nicolas, 叶儿, Gabriel, 玲玲, W
Edited by 陈思维

A wave of rulings may help the Democrats in November
裁决风潮也许能帮助民主党在11月总统大选中取胜

Away from the razzmatazz of the party conventions, federal judges have been making decisions that could have a greater impact on the election. Seven rulings have softened or nullified Republican efforts in several states to tighten voting rules—allegedly to deter fraud, though they also depress turnout among minorities and the poor, who tend to vote Democratic.
    
置身于两党代表大会的喧嚣纷扰之外,联邦法官一直忙于制定或将左右此次大选走势的决策。七项裁决或减少、或撤销了共和党以“防竞选欺诈”之名在数州制定的投票限制,不过此举也降低了亲民主党的少数族裔与贫民的投票率。 
词汇学习:
razzmatazz 
(informal) a lot of noisy exciting activity that is intended to attract people's attention 令人眼花缭乱的活动

e.g.The documentary focuses on the razzmatazz of an American political campaign. 
这部纪录影片着重展现出一场美国政治运动令人眼花缭乱的一面。

the party conventions 两党代表大会 (虽然美国还有别的党派,但是真正主控政坛的还是民主、共和两大党)

deter fraud 防止发生欺诈现象
fraud  
the crime of cheating sb in order to get money or goods illegally 欺诈罪;欺骗罪
e.g.She was charged with credit card fraud. 
她被控告信用卡欺骗罪。 

deter  
to make sb decide not to do sth or continue doing sth, especially by making them understand the difficulties and unpleasant results of their actions 制止;阻止;威慑;使不敢

e.g.The high price of the service could deter people from seeking advice. 
这么高的服务费可能使咨询者望而却步。

turnout
the number of people who vote in a particular election 投票人数;投票率
e.g.a high / low / poor turnout 
参加投票的人数很多/很少/寥寥无几 
Nicholas有感:
Away from the razzmatazz of the party conventions...
这句话如果直译,将其译为“联邦法官避开两党代表大会令人眼花缭乱的活动”,会给读者带来一个问题,即“联邦法官为什么要‘避开’呢?”可见,“away from”在此取“置身事外”更加合适。“razzmatazz”可进行修改,译为“喧嚣纷扰”,本句可译为“置身于两党代表大会的喧嚣纷扰之外”。

Seven rulings have softened or nullified Republican efforts in several states to tighten voting rules—allegedly to deter fraud...
这里在翻译时容易产生歧义,即把“allegedly to deter fraud”与下文中的“though they also depress...”放在一起翻译。但是通读全文后会发现,破折号后面的“allegedly to deter fraud”是修饰的“共和党限制投票规则这一举措”,也就是“打着防竞选欺诈的口号”。本句在此可译为“七项裁决或减少、或撤销了共和党以“防竞选欺诈”之名在数州制定的投票限制。”

...who tend to vote Democratic.
“tend to”本义是“倾向于”,若将“tend to vote Democratic”译为“支持民主党人”就完全漏掉了“倾向”的意思,所以在这里将“tend to vote Democratic”译为“亲民主党”。


In Michigan, where Hillary Clinton has a small lead over Donald Trump, a federal judge ruled on July 21st against a Republican-sponsored law meddling with the layout of the election ballot. For 125 years, Michigan voters have had the option of filling in a single bubble to select every candidate from a given party. Banning this practice, the court ruled, has a disproportionate effect on black voters, who tend to use the straight-party option to vote for the entire Democratic slate. Since it takes much longer to fill in a dozen bubbles, the law will increase “voter wait times…greatly in African-American communities”, potentially deterring them from trying.

在密歇根州(目前希拉里•克林顿在该州以微弱优势领先唐纳德•特朗普),一位联邦法官于7月21日否决了一项共和党支持的法案,因为该法案干涉了选票的票面设计。 125年来,密歇根州选民在投票时勾选一次就能全选某个特定政党的候选人。法院裁决,鉴于黑人选民倾向于一次性全选整个民主党,禁止全选对于黑人选民投票会造成不良影响。由于选民需要更长时间从不同政党候选人名单中打勾多选,所以这项法律将会延长“选民在投票时的等待时间……尤其是对于非裔选民来说”,并可能导致非裔选民无法参与投票。
词汇学习:
have a small lead over sb 以微弱优势领先XX

filling in a single bubble 在这里不能译为“做出单项选择”,因为“单项选择”指的是“在多项答案中,只能选一个答案”,所以在文中应该译为“勾选一次就能全选”或“一次性全选”(——Nicolas)

a given party 特定政党

disproportionate  
too large or too small when compared with sth else不成比例的;不相称的;太大(或太小)的

e.g.The area contains a disproportionate number of young middle-class families. 
此地年轻的中产阶级家庭特别多。 

use the straight-party option 选择同一政党

slate 
a list of the candidates in an election (选举中的)候选人名单

e.g.a slate of candidates 
候选人名单 

fill in a dozen bubbles 做出多项选择,在文中译为“打钩多选”
参考译法:
In Michigan, where Hillary Clinton has a small lead over Donald Trump, a federal judge...
“where Hillary Clinton has a small lead over Donald Trump”在此句中作插入语,且不表示观点,所以在翻译过程中将其保留在原来位置,用括号连接作为补充。译为:在密歇根州(目前希拉里•克林顿在该州以微弱优势领先唐纳德•特朗普)...

...who tend to use the straight-party option to vote for the entire Democratic slate.
因为在上文中已经提到,密歇根州选民在投票时勾选一次就能全选某个特定政党的候选人,而此句中的the straight-party option表达的就是“倾向于选择/一次性全选同一政党”的意思,所以在此将其译为“...黑人选民倾向于一次性全选整个民主党...”

...the law will increase “voter wait times…greatly in African-American communities”...
voter wait times是指的美国选民在投票时的等待时间。所以在这里进行增词,译为“投票时的等待时间”

关于voter wait times的了解,可以看这段资料According to the Presidential Commission on Election Administration, more than 5 million voters waited for more than an hour to cast a ballot in 2012. A Massachusetts Institute of Technology analysis found that African American and Hispanic voters experienced the longest wait times: White voters averaged a 12-minute wait, while African American voters averaged a 23-minute wait and Hispanic voters averaged a 19-minute wait.

As for North Carolina, a state that has voted Republican all but twice since 1968, the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals issued a decision on July 29th that may give an edge to the Democratic nominee. Many provisions of the state’s voting law of 2013, the court ruled, unconstitutionally“target African-Americans with almost surgical precision” to keep them away from the polls.
    
对于北卡罗来纳州来说,自1968年以来,该州除了两次投票支持民主党以外,其余几次均支持共和党。而现在,第四巡回上诉法院于7月29日宣布的裁决可能使共和党候选人处于劣势。法院裁决表明,《北卡罗来纳州2013年投票法》中列出的许多法律条款之所以违宪,是因为其“几乎完完全全针对非裔美国人”,使得非裔美国人无法参与大选投票。
词汇学习:
the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals 第四巡回上诉法院

give an edge to... 使...占据优势
e.g.Through superior production techniques they were able to gain the competitive edge.
凭借先进的生产技术,他们得以占据竞争优势。

provision
A provision in a law or an agreement is an arrangement which is included in it.(法律或协议的)条款 

e.g.He backed a provision that would allow judges to delay granting a divorce decree in some cases...
他赞成一项允许法官在一些情况下延迟作出离婚判决的法律条款。
参考译法:
...that may give an edge to the Democratic nominee...
edge在这是“优势、上风”的意思,在此可以理解为“使民主党人占据上风”。由上文可以看出,共和党人在北卡罗来纳州的受支持率很高,所以这里可以用“而现在”这个转折词,将其译为“使共和党候选人处于劣势”,让上下文连接更为流畅。

...target African-Americans with almost surgical precision... 
在此本可以粗暴地理解为“几乎在用外科手术的精确度来针对非裔美国人...”但是人话不能这么说...“with almost surgical precision”可理解为“几乎丝毫不差地”,本句在文中译为“几乎完完全全针对非裔美国人”更符合中文的语言习惯。

For decades, changes to voting practices in a large swathe of North Carolina—and in other states with a particularly chequered history of racial discrimination—could not be implemented without the approval of the Department of Justice, as required by the Voting Rights Act. But the Supreme Court found part of this law unconstitutional in Shelby County v Holder, a ruling three years ago in which Chief Justice John Roberts declared America’s racism largely past. As soon as Shelby County came down, Republicans in North Carolina rushed to pass a new voting law, with one party leader later saying: “If it hurts a bunch of lazy blacks that want the government to give them everything, so be it.”

几十年来,《选举权法》规定,北卡罗来纳州大部分地区和某些频发种族歧视事件的其他州,要变更投票规则必须得到美国司法部的批准,否则不能实行。然而,最高法院的首席大法官约翰•罗伯茨(John Roberts),于三年前谢尔比县诉埃里克•霍尔德案(Shelby County v Holder)中,对《选举权法》中的部分条款作出了违宪裁决,并声称美国种族歧视现象已经消除。此裁决一出,北卡罗来纳州的共和党人就趁机火速出台这部新的投票法。(《北卡罗来纳州2013年投票法》)一名政党领袖唐•耶尔顿(Don Yelton)当时说道:“如果这部法律打击到了那帮希望政府满足他们一切需要的黑人懒货,那就对了。”
词汇学习:
swathe
A swathe of land is a long strip of land. (土地的)一长条,一长片

e.g.Year by year great swathes of this small nation's countryside disappear.
年复一年,这个小国家的乡村面积正在一片片地大量消失。

chequered  
a person's past, etc. that contains both successful and not successful periods 成功与失败并存的(过去或历史、事业)

e.g.He had a chequered political career spanning nearly forty years...
他的政治生涯将近40年,其间起起伏伏。

the Department of Justice 司法部

Voting Rights Act 《选举权法》

Chief Justice 首席大法官

come down  
To be handed down from a higher authority
e.g.An indictment finally came down.

hurt
to have a bad effect on sb / sth 对…有不良影响

e.g.Many people on low incomes will be hurt by the government's plans.  
很多低收入的人将受到政府这些方案的打击。
参考译法:
...and in other states with a particularly chequered history of racial discrimination...

这句话如果直译,可以理解为“在种族歧视问题上遭遇过格外波折经历的其他州...”但如果这样读起来的话,相信各位读者大大都会倍感绕口...所以在此省略为“频发种族歧视事件的其他州”。

But the Supreme Court found part of this law unconstitutional in Shelby County v Holder, a ruling three years ago in which Chief Justice John Roberts declared America’s racism largely past.

这句话牵涉到了文化背景。“part of this law”的law是指的美国1965年颁布的《选举权法案》。Shelby County v. Holder 是一个案子,Shelby County指的是美国阿拉巴马州的谢尔比县,是该案的上诉方。Holder是the U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder,也就是美国司法部长埃里克•霍尔德。在Shelby County v. Holder这个案子里,最高法院的法官们判决1965年颁布的《选举权法案》中有两条法律条款属于违宪,这两条条款是指Section 5和 Section 4(b),Section 5要求某些州和地方政府在更改当地投票法案或者投票规则时,必须事先得到联邦法院的审核批准。 因为考虑到某些地区在投票时曾存在种族歧视现象,所以Section 4(b)明确指出了具体是哪些辖区必须事先得到联邦法院批准才能更改当地投票法案或投票规则。法院最后判决Section 4(b)违宪,只保留了Section 5。不过咱们知道,Section4(b)都没有了的话,就没有别的法律条款来支撑Section 5了呀~也就是相当于两个法律条款都失效了...更多关于Shelby County v. Holder 这一案子的始末,请雅虎必应谷歌一下哟~
      
好啦回归正题,这个句子大意是讲最高法院在Shelby County v. Holder一案中判决《选举权法》中的部分条款违宪,而这个判决是最高法院的首席大法官约翰•罗伯茨于三年前宣布的。在这里我们将declared America’s racism largely past理解为声称美国种族歧视现象已经消除,这里的“past”我们将其理解为“gone”或者“the end of...”具体原因请见下一段参考资料。由于约翰•罗伯茨就是最高法院的8位法官之一,(原本有9位,但法官安东尼•斯卡利亚于今年逝世,所以现在是8位)所以我们可以调整一下语序,将有关约翰•罗伯茨的介绍提至句首,译为“最高法院的首席大法官约翰•罗伯茨(John Roberts),于三年前谢尔比县诉埃里克•霍尔德案(Shelby County v Holder)中,对《选举权法》中的部分条款作出了违宪裁决,并声称美国种族歧视现象已经消除。”使其更加符合中文的语言习惯。

    “declared America’s racism largely past”参考资料如下:
    In a crafty legal move, the conservative justices didn't strike down Section 5 of the law, which creates the system for "preclearance". However, the reality is that after today no jurisdictions will have to seek preclearance unless Congress changes the formula.
But here's the real story: according to Chief Justice John Roberts, "Blatantly discriminatory evasions of federal decrees are rare." With a stroke of his pen, he effectively declared the end of racism in America. 
    Who knew the court had such authority? As Justice Elena Kagan put it during oral arguments, "We have the power now to decide whether racial discrimination has been solved? I did not think that fell within our bailiwick."
    Roberts' whole assertion that racism is gone is especially galling given that the chief justice's support for that conclusion was publically invalidated. During oral arguments, Roberts smugly challenged the government's lawyer...
(摘自卫报)

“If it hurts a bunch of lazy blacks that want the government to give them everything, so be it.”
考虑到结尾的这句“so be it”是日常用语,所以可译为“那就对了。”
背景介绍:
...with one party leader later saying...  
     在这里是指的共和党官员唐•耶尔顿(Don Yelton),他因为在囧司徒每日秀里面发表了“If it hurts a bunch of lazy blacks that want the government to give them everything, so be it.”的言论,所以被免职了...更多相关信息可戳https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-RNHtjdmnk(Don Yelton's Racist Remarks on Daily Show Get Him Fired)

The 4th Circuit court found that lawmakers had requested and surveyed black voting data before crafting rules to limit their franchise. They knew that eliminating same-day voter registration and preregistration for high-school students, as the new bill did, would have an outsize impact on blacks. They knew that shortening early voting by seven days would cut out one Sunday on which black churches bused “souls to the polls”. They understood that banning same-day registration and out-of-precinct voting would disproportionately hamper black voters because they move more often than whites. But they passed the law all the same, in three days, in an apparent “attempt to avoid in-depth scrutiny”. No legislative body in America, the court concluded, “has ever done so much, so fast, to restrict access to the franchise”.

第四巡回法院判决结果表明,北卡罗来纳州的立法者在制定限制黑人选民选举权的新投票法之前,曾要求分析黑人选民的投票数据。该州立法者深知,按照这部新《选举权法》的规定,取消为高中生提供的同日选民登记以及预先登记服务,将会对黑人选民产生较大影响;他们明白,把提前投票时间缩短七天,将会把黑人教堂举行“以心之名,投我所爱”活动的那个星期天排除在外;他们清楚,下令禁止跨选区投票、取消同日选民登记服务之所以会大大妨碍黑人选民参与投票,是因为黑人比白人选民搬迁更为频繁。然而尽管如此,北卡罗来纳州的立法者还是在三日内就出台了这部新的投票法,这显然是“为了避免法院的深入审查”。第四巡回法院认为“美国立法机关从未如此竭尽全力,快如闪电地限制人们的选举权”。
词汇学习:
franchise  
(formal) the right to vote in a country's elections (公民)选举权
e.g.universal adult franchise 
成年人普选权 

same-day voter registration 同日选民登记

preregistration 预先登记

out-of-precinct voting 跨选区投票

disproportionately
e.g.a disproportionately high suicide rate among young prisoners.
年轻囚犯特别高的自杀率

in-depth scrutiny 深入审查
参考译法:
...that lawmakers had requested and ...
在此增译为“北卡罗来纳州的立法者”,因为美国除了联邦法律之外,每个州都有自己的立法部门来决定相关州法。

“attempt to avoid in-depth scrutiny”
在此增译为“为了避免法院的深入审查”,因为美国的法院可以对州法进行司法审查。


Texas and Wisconsin may have come close. In the Lone Star State, voters must show one of seven forms of photo-ID before entering the voting booth. A gun licence works, but neither a driving licence from another state nor a university ID will do. The more than 600,000 registered voters lacking proper documents may still vote, but their ballots will be destroyed unless they show up at a government office within six days with one of the prescribed forms of identification. The story in Wisconsin is similar. Scott Walker, Wisconsin’s Republican governor, called his state’s law a “common-sense reform” that would protect “the integrity of elections”. Senator
Troy Fraser, the author of the Texas law, argued that without it “we can never have confidence in our system of voting”.

德克萨斯州和威斯康星州的情况也许大致相似。孤星之州(德克萨斯州的别称)的选民在进入投票间之前,必须出示该州七种法定照片身份证件中的任意一种,其中包括了持枪许可证,但是不包括大学学生证和其他州的驾驶证。尽管仍旧有超过60万无证选民登记投票,但若选民不能在六日内向政府机关出示上述身份证件,其选票将作无效处理。威斯康星州的情况大同小异。威斯康星州州长、共和党人斯科特•沃克(Scott Walker),认为该州州法的制定是一场将会维护“选举真实性”的“切实改革”。作为德克萨斯州州法的撰写人,参议员特洛伊•弗雷泽(Troy Fraser)表示,如果没有制定这部法律,“我们就永远无法对德州的投票制度放心。”
词汇学习:
the Lone Star State 孤星之州(德克萨斯州)

the voting booth 投票间

prescribed form 规定格式

prescribed time 法定期间

the prescribed forms of identification 法定形式的身份证件
背景补充
seven forms of photo-ID是指
– Texas driver license issued by the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS)
– Texas Election Identification Certificate issued by DPS
– Texas personal identification card issued by DPS
– Texas handgun license issued by DPS
– United States military identification card containing the person’s photograph
– United States citizenship certificate containing the person’s photograph
– United States passport
参考译法:
...but neither a driving licence from another state nor a university ID will do...
     这里的driving licence from another state nor a university ID如果译为“其他州的驾驶证和大学学生证”,似乎就是指的“其他州的大学学生证了”,但是文中是指自己州的大学学生证也不在认可范围。所以调换顺序将其译为“但是大学学生证和其他州的驾驶证则不属于该州认可范围。”

These claims have now been found wanting. In a 9-6 ruling on July 20th, the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Texas’s photo-ID requirement had a discriminatory effect on racial minorities. Hispanics are about twice as likely as whites to be without acceptable ID on election day; blacks, three times as likely. After the ruling Texas relented, announcing that most documents bearing a voter’s name and address would be sufficient.

法院如今之所以判决以上投票要求不够公平合理,是因为大选当日无合格身份证件的拉美裔选民和非裔选民比例分别是白人选民的两倍和三倍。也因此,7月20日,第五巡回上诉法院以9比6票数通过判决,宣布德克萨斯州要求选民出示照片身份证这一行为造成了对少数族裔的歧视。此判决一出,德克萨斯州终于宣布,选民投票时只需出示大部分带有姓名和住址的证件即可。
词汇学习:
Hispanic
a person whose first language is Spanish, especially six from a Latin American country living in the US or Canada 母语为西班牙语的人(尤指住在美国或加拿大的拉丁美洲人);拉美裔

relent
to finally agree to sth after refusing 终于答应;不再拒绝
e.g.'Well, just for a little while then,' she said, finally relenting. 
"好吧,不过只能待一会儿。"她最后终于答应了。
参考译法:
These claims have now been found wanting. 
由上文可知,这里的claims是指的投票要求,have now been found wanting即“被视为不够公平合理”。根据中文的语言习惯,在翻译的时候需要把英文的被动语态转变成中文的主动语态。从文中可以看出,是“法院认为这些投票要求不够合理”,因此这句话可译为“法院如今...判决以上投票要求不够公平合理。”

Hispanics are about twice as likely as whites to be without acceptable ID on election day; blacks, three times as likely. 
将blacks后面所省略的内容补充出来,就变成了blacks,three times as likely as whites to be without acceptable ID on election day.也就是说大选当日无合格身份证件的黑人选民是白人选民的三倍。

由于这句话开头已经介绍了拉美裔选民,所以在此可以把“黑人选民”译成更为对称的“非裔选民”。再加上本句在原文中是用来解释“为什么法院会认为德州这一举措造成了对少数族裔的歧视”,也可以用于说明“为什么法院认为设立的投票要求不够公平合理”。所以可调换一下此句所在位置,用“之所以...是因为...也因此”来连接上下文,将句子译为“...是因为大选当日无合格身份证件的拉美裔选民和非裔选民比例分别是白人选民的两倍和三倍...”

另外,关于为什么会调整语序请看这段解释~从这段话可以看出,(“In a 9-6 ruling on July 20th, the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Texas’s photo-ID requirement had a discriminatory effect on racial minorities. Hispanics are about twice as likely as whites to be without acceptable ID on election day.”)拉美裔和非裔选民的那句介绍是用来解释“为什么造成了对少数族裔的歧视”。所以要加上“因为”,而英译汉时要注意让关联词双双出现。如果译为,“7月20日,第五巡回上诉法院以9比6票数通过判决,宣布德克萨斯州 之所以 要求选民出示照片身份证这一行为造成了对少数族裔的歧视,是因为 大选当日无合格身份证件的拉美裔选民和非裔选民比例分别是白人选民的两倍和三倍。”在宣判判决的时候,出现关联词就显得不够正式。因此译者放弃了这一译法,选择调整此处的语序。

After the ruling Texas relented...
这句话中,Texas relented修饰the ruling,大意是指德州对这项判决作出了让步。这里对其进行简化,译为“此判决一出,德克萨斯州终于宣布...”

On July 29th a federal district court also loosened Wisconsin’s absentee-voting restrictions, shortened a 28-day residency requirement and added expired (but valid) student IDs to the list of acceptable forms of photo-ID. Another judge has ruled that those who are unable to obtain photo-ID in Wisconsin may instead vote by signing an affidavit. A similar ruling on August 1st found that North Dakota had suppressed the franchise of Native Americans by requiring photo-ID while eliminating other options, such as swearing an oath. The state will revert to its previous, less restrictive, policy for the November election.

联邦地区法院于7月29日也放宽了威斯康星州的缺席投票限制,不仅缩短了对选民要求的28天居住时间,而且将过期(但是有效)的学生证列入为该州投票时合格的身份证件之一。另一名法官已经判决,无法在威斯康星州获得身份证件的那些选民们,可以通过签署一份宣誓书来代替投票。8月1日宣布的一项类似裁决表明,北达科他州在取消其他诸如宣誓的行动时,曾要求印第安人出示身份证件,以抑制其行使选举权。11月大选时,该州将会恢复以往更为宽松的投票政策。
词汇学习:
absentee-voting 缺席投票,又称“不在籍投票”,指选民可能因故无法投票而提供其行使投票权的途径。

affidavit 
(law 律) a written statement that you swear is true, and that can be used as evidence in court 附誓书面证词;宣誓作证书 

Native Americans 印第安人